Diuretics are pharmacological products with diverse contexture that help to enhance urine output and decrease the liquid content in the organism.
Diuretics are very popular among the people as a way to combat many health problems. They bring down elevated blood pressure, relieve tumefaction, excrete toxins and assist to lose weight. No wonder that the tradition of using them is computed by centuries, of course when it comes to natural diuretics rather than their contemporary synthetic analogues. This is one of the latter-day groups of pharmaceutical medications but it has made an exceedingly serious affect on the coping with renal and cardiovascular ailments.
Nevertheless, the scope of diuretics is not limited to kidney and heart pathologies. Rather difficult to name one sphere of medicine where they aren`t needed, than to list those sections where they are indispensable. Their demand is determined by the great potential in the regulation of salt, water and electrolyte metabolism one of the basic indicators of our life as a whole. Yet cardiology and urology with nephrology are still the main consumers.
Keep in mind that only laboratory diagnostic checkup conducted by a specialist can establish the reason of liquid retention in the tissues. Only based on the diagnosis, whether it is the hormonal background violation, kidney dysfunction, high blood pressure or increased vascular permeability, could be selected diuretic drugs.
These pharmacological products can be split into categories due to:
- Chemical context
- Scene of action
- Principle of operation
- Force the rate of appearance of effects
- Duration of exposure
- Negative manifestations
- Based on the pharmacodynamics, all modern diuretics are split into 3 groups:
- Saluretics derivatives
Diuretics effect may not manifest itself at once, sometimes it takes time. It depends on the medication you exploit. Medics distinguish quick action diuretics (express themselves in 30-40 minutes after consuming), medium action (2-4 hours) and slow action (2-4 days). For the durability: short (5-8hours), average duration (8-15 hours), prolonged action (a few days).
When using diuretics, a diseased might face with a considerable deprivation of electrolytes with piss. Crucial is the issue of deprivation and replenish of potassium, since lowering of its indexes raises severe violation of all muscles in the organism, including the heart. Deprivation of large quantities of potassium can result in cardiac insufficiency and even to fatal outcome. Thereby, invention on of potassium-sparing diuretics was an exceptionally big matter. Exploitation of other diuretics requires constant clinical controlling of blood electrolytes (leastways 2 times a week) and prescription of potassium compensators. It is frequently doable exclusively in medical facilities. Potassium-sparing diuretics enable long-lasting ambulatory diuretic therapy. They represent agents of weak pharmacological action. Such an effect is useful for prolonged curing of chronic ailments at home.
There drugs act all along the ascendant portion of Henle's loop, inhibit activity of transportation of chloride ions and reinforcing the elimination of sodium, potassium and other elements.
They involve mannitol and urea. Diuretic effect occurs almost immediately (within 10- 15 minutes); duration — 4 to 6 hours. These preparations are designed for intravenous administration.
There are also other diuretics, not belonging to neither of these three groups, but with a substantial diuretic effect: ammonium chloride, glucose, cardiac glycosides, albumin, dextran, as well as a large group of medicinal plants.